Bladder cancers are usually a disease of advanced ages. The most abundant risk factor for bladder cancer is smoking. Chemicals are the second leading risk factor. In 85% of patients, the first symptom is the presence of blood in the urine (hematuria). Hematuria can occur by itself or in the form of intermittent, painless bleeding with clots. Hematuria must be taken seriously and should be considered as a symptom of cancer, especially in smokers, until proven otherwise. For this purpose, all necessary examinations should be performed, starting with an Ultrasonography (Cytology, Cystoscopy) imaging.
Treatment of Bladder Cancer
If the presence of a bladder mass is determined, tumor scraping with a closed camera system called TUR-TM is the first thing to be done. The pathology result obtained during this surgery determines the permanent treatment plan. According to this pathology result:
- For bladder cancers without the invasion of the muscle layer (superficial), following TUR-TM surgery (tumor scraping with closed camera system), pharmacological agents are applied into the bladder. In addition, this group of patients with bladder cancer should be followed up with repetitive cystoscopic imagings (closed system with cameras) at regular intervals.
- For bladder cancers with the invasion of the muscle layer (invasive), cystectomy + urinary diversion surgery, which is the removal of the bladder and building an artificial bladder by using a segment of intestine, is recommended.
Chemotherapy treatments can be used for the patients who have metastatic bladder cancers.