Prof. Dr. Hakan Koyuncu

Prostat Kanseri

Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer is the second most common type of cancer in men. However, with EARLY DIAGNOSIS, the probability of curing prostate cancer is higher than many other cancers. For this reason;
  • Digital rectal exam
  • Blood PSA test
should be carried out annually as of the age of 45 if there is prostate cancer present in the family members, and as of the age of 50 if there is no family history of prostate cancer.

What Is PSA?

PSA (prostate specific antigen) is an enzyme that allows liquefaction of semen, which is secreted by the prostate cells. It requires a blood sample. The level of PSA is increased due to prostate cancer. Urinary catheterization, cystoscopy (viewing of the bladder with a camera system), ejaculation shortly before the test, prostatitis, prostate biopsy, prostate surgery and prostate massage may cause temporary elevation of PSA levels.

When Should a Prostate Biopsy Be Performed?

If there is an elevation of blood PSA levels, if there are any firmness/irregularities determined during the prostate exam or if there are MRI-detected suspicious areas present, a PROSTATE BIOPSY should be performed for early diagnosis.

Are There Different Types of Prostate Biopsy?

Prostate biopsy is performed by taking multiple samples guided by rectal prostate ultrasound as standard. However, especially in case of a need for repetitive biopsy, Fusion Guided Prostate Biopsy method,which is superior in tumor detection, is recommended instead of standard ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy. Fusion Guided Prostate Biopsy combines the suspicious areas in advanced multiparametric MRI images with the live ultrasound images to take spot-on biopsy samples from the suspicious areas with minimal deviation. First, MRI images are converted to 3D images and suspicious areas are marked in these 3D images. 3D MRI images are simultaneously combined with the real-time ultrasound images to visualize the suspicious areas during biopsy and allow spot-on sampling. With fusion guided prostate biopsy, it is possible to reduce the number of samples, thereby lowering the risk of infection and bleeding. Also, since the biopsy is performed with minimal deviation from the suspicious area, the diagnosis is made more accurately and the need for repetitive biopsies are minimized.

What Are the Treatment Options for Prostate Cancer?

  • Active Surveillance: Monitoring with episodial prostate biopsies and moving on to treatment if needed.
  • Surgery for Prostate Cancer: Removal of the prostate, the seminal vesicles and the related lymph nodes if needed.
    • Laparoscopic method
    • Open method (with surgical loupes)
  • Radiotherapy
  • Hormonal Treatment
  • Chemotherapy